Experience, India, Interview, Knowledge, Placement, trick

64 Interview Answers You Should Know

Q1. Tell me about yourself

BEST ANSWER: Start with the present and tell why you are well qualified for the position. Remember that the key to all-successful interviewing is to Match your qualifications to what the interviewer is looking for. In other words you must sell what the buyer is buying. This is the single most important strategy in job hunting.

Q2. What are your greatest strengths?

BEST ANSWER: You know that your key strategy is to first uncover your interviewer’s greatest wants and needs before you answer questions. And from Question 1, you know how to do this.

Q3. What are your greatest weaknesses?

PASSABLE ANSWER: Disguise a strength as a weakness.

Example: “I sometimes push my people too hard. I like to work with a sense of urgency and everyone is not always on the same wavelength.”

Drawback: This strategy is better than admitting a flaw, but it’s so widely used, it is transparent to any experienced interviewer.

BEST ANSWER: (and another reason it’s so important to get a thorough description of your interviewer’s needs before you answer questions): Assure the interviewer that you can think of nothing that would stand in the way of your performing in this position with excellence. Then, quickly review you strongest qualifications.

Q4 Tell me about something you did – or failed to do – that you now feel a little ashamed of.

BEST ANSWER: As with faults and weaknesses, never confess a regret. But don’t seem as if you’re stonewalling either.

Best strategy: Say you harbor no regrets, then add a principle or habit you practice regularly for healthy human relations.

Q5. Why are you leaving (or did you leave) this position?

BEST ANSWER: (If you have a job presently)

If you’re not yet 100% committed to leaving your present post, don’t be afraid to say so. Since you have a job, you are in a stronger position than someone who does not. But don’t be coy either. State honestly what you’d be hoping to find in a new spot. Of course, as stated often before, you answer will all the stronger if you have already uncovered what this position is all about and you match your desires to it.

If you do not presently have a job.)

Never lie about having been fired. It’s unethical – and too easily checked. But do try to deflect the reason from you personally. If your firing was the result of a takeover, merger, division wide layoff, etc., so much the better.

Q6. The “Silent Treatment”

BEST ANSWER: Like a primitive tribal mask, the Silent Treatment loses all it power to frighten you once you refuse to be intimidated. If your interviewer pulls it, keep quiet yourself for a while and then ask, with sincere politeness and not a trace of sarcasm, “Is there anything else I can fill in on that point?” That’s all there is to it.

Q7. Why should I hire you?

BEST ANSWER: By now you can see how critical it is to apply the overall strategy of uncovering the employer’s needs before you answer questions. If you know the employer’s greatest needs and desires, this question will give you a big leg up over other candidates because you will give him better reasons for hiring you than anyone else is likely to…reasons tied directly to his needs.

Q8. Aren’t you overqualified for this position?

BEST ANSWER: As with any objection, don’t view this as a sign of imminent defeat. It’s an invitation to teach the interviewer a new way to think about this situation, seeing advantages instead of drawbacks.

Q9. Where do you see yourself five years from now?

BEST ANSWER: Reassure your interviewer that you’re looking to make a long-term commitment…that this position entails exactly what you’re looking to do and what you do extremely well. As for your future, you believe that if you perform each job at hand with excellence, future opportunities will take care of themselves.

Q10. Describe your ideal company, location and job

BEST ANSWER: The only right answer is to describe what this company is offering, being sure to make your answer believable with specific reasons, stated with sincerity, why each quality represented by this opportunity is attractive to you.

Q11. Why do you want to work at our company?

BEST ANSWER: This question is your opportunity to hit the ball out of the park, thanks to the in-depth research you should do before any interview.

Best sources for researching your target company: annual reports, the corporate newsletter, contacts you know at the company or its suppliers, advertisements, articles about the company in the trade press.

Q12. What are your career options right now?

BEST ANSWER: Prepare for this question by thinking of how you can position yourself as a desired commodity. If you are still working, describe the possibilities at your present firm and why, though you’re greatly appreciated there, you’re looking for something more (challenge, money, responsibility, etc.). Also mention that you’re seriously exploring opportunities with one or two other firms.

Q13. Why have you been out of work so long?

BEST ANSWER: You want to emphasize factors which have prolonged your job search by your own choice.

Example: “After my job was terminated, I made a conscious decision not to jump on the first opportunities to come along. In my life, I’ve found out that you can always turn a negative into a positive IF you try hard enough. This is what I determined to do. I decided to take whatever time I needed to think through what I do best, what I most want to do, where I’d like to do it…and then identify those companies that could offer such an opportunity.”

Q14. Tell me honestly about the strong points and weak points of your boss (company, management team, etc.)…

BEST ANSWER: Remember the rule: Never be negative. Stress only the good points, no matter how charmingly you’re invited to be critical.

Your interviewer doesn’t care a whit about your previous boss. He wants to find out how loyal and positive you are, and whether you’ll criticize him behind his back if pressed to do so by someone in this own company. This question is your opportunity to demonstrate your loyalty to those you work with.

Q15. What good books have you read lately?

BEST ANSWER: Unless you’re up for a position in academia or as book critic for The New York Times, you’re not expected to be a literary lion. But it wouldn’t hurt to have read a handful of the most recent and influential books in your profession and on management.

Q16. Tell me about a situation when your work was criticized.

BEST ANSWER: Begin by emphasizing the extremely positive feedback you’ve gotten throughout your career and (if it’s true) that your performance reviews have been uniformly excellent.

Q17. What are your outside interests?

BEST ANSWER: Try to gauge how this company’s culture would look upon your favorite outside activities and be guided accordingly.

Q18. The “Fatal Flaw” question

BEST ANSWER: As every master salesperson knows, you will encounter objections (whether stated or merely thought) in every sale. They’re part and parcel of the buyer’s anxiety. The key is not to exacerbate the buyer’s anxiety but diminish it.

Q19. How do you feel about reporting to a younger person (minority, woman, etc)?

BEST ANSWER: You greatly admire a company that hires and promotes on merit alone and you couldn’t agree more with that philosophy. The age (gender, race, etc.) of the person you report to would certainly make no difference to you.

Q20. On confidential matters…

BEST ANSWER: Your interviewer may press you for this information for two reasons.

First, many companies use interviews to research the competition. It’s a perfect set-up. Here in their own lair, is an insider from the enemy camp who can reveal prized information on the competition’s plans, research, financial condition, etc.

Second, the company may be testing your integrity to see if you can be cajoled or bullied into revealing confidential data.

Q21. Would you lie for the company?

BEST ANSWER: Try to avoid choosing between two values, giving a positive statement which covers all bases instead.

Q22. Looking back, what would you do differently in your life?

BEST ANSWER: Indicate that you are a happy, fulfilled, optimistic person and that, in general, you wouldn’t change a thing.

Q23. Could you have done better in your last job?

BEST ANSWER: Again never be negative.

Example: “I suppose with the benefit of hindsight you can always find things to do better, of course, but off the top of my head, I can’t think of anything of major consequence.”

Q24. Can you work under pressure?

BEST ANSWER: Absolutely…(then prove it with a vivid example or two of a goal or project accomplished under severe pressure.)

Q25. What makes you angry?

BEST ANSWER: Give an answer that’s suited to both your personality and the management style of the firm. Here, the homework you’ve done about the company and its style can help in your choice of words.

Q26. Why aren’t you earning more money at this stage of your career?

BEST ANSWER: You like to make money, but other factors are even more important.

Q27. Who has inspired you in your life and why?

BEST ANSWER: Have a few heroes in mind, from your mental “Board of Directors” – Leaders in your industry, from history or anyone else who has been your mentor.

Q28. What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?

BEST ANSWER: Be prepared with a good example, explaining why the decision was difficult…the process you followed in reaching it…the courageous or effective way you carried it out…and the beneficial results.

Q29. Tell me about the most boring job you’ve ever had

BEST ANSWER: You have never allowed yourself to grow bored with a job and you can’t understand it when others let themselves fall into that rut.

Q30. Have you been absent from work more than a few days in any previous position?

BEST ANSWER: If you have had no problem, emphasize your excellent and consistent attendance record throughout your career.

Also describe how important you believe such consistent attendance is for a key executive…why it’s up to you to set an example of dedication…and why there’s just no substitute for being there with your people to keep the operation running smoothly, answer questions and handle problems and crises as they arise.

Q31. What changes would you make if you came on board?

BEST ANSWER: You, of course, will want to take a good hard look at everything the company is doing before making any recommendations.

Q32. I’m concerned that you don’t have as much experience as we’d like in…

BEST ANSWER: This question is related to “The Fatal Flaw” (Question 18), but here the concern is not that you are totally missing some qualifications, such as CPA certification, but rather that your experience is light in one area.

Before going into any interview, try to identify the weakest aspects of your candidacy from this company’s point of view. Then prepare the best answer you possible can to shore up your defenses.

Q33. How do you feel about working nights and weekends?

BEST ANSWER: First, if you’re a confirmed workaholic, this question is a softball lob. Whack it out of the park on the first swing by saying this kind of schedule is just your style. Add that your family understands it. Indeed, they’re happy for you, as they know you get your greatest satisfaction from your work.

Q34. Are you willing to relocate or travel?

BEST ANSWER: First find out where you may have to relocate and how much travel may be involved.

Q35. Do you have the stomach to fire people? Have you had experience firing many people?

BEST ANSWER: Describe the rational and sensible management process you follow in both hiring and firing.

Q36. Why have you had so many jobs?

BEST ANSWER: First, before you even get to the interview stage, you should try to minimize your image as job hopper. If there are several entries on your resume of less than one year, consider eliminating the less important ones. Perhaps you can specify the time you spent at previous positions in rounded years not in months and years.

Q37. What do you see as the proper role/mission of…

…a good (job title you’re seeking);

…a good manager;

…an executive in serving the community;

…a leading company in our industry; etc.

BEST ANSWER: Think of the most essential ingredients of success for each category above – your job title, your role as manager, your firm’s role, etc.

Identify at least three but no more than six qualities you feel are most important to success in each role. Then commit your response to memory.

Here, again, the more information you’ve already drawn out about the greatest wants and needs of the interviewer, and the more homework you’ve done to identify the culture of the firm, the more on-target your answer will be.

Q38. What would you say to your boss if he’s crazy about an idea, but you think it stinks?

BEST ANSWER: Remember the rule stated earlier: In any conflict between values, always choose integrity.

Q39. How could you have improved your career progress?

BEST ANSWER: You’re generally quite happy with your career progress. Maybe, if you had known something earlier in life (impossible to know at the time, such as the booming growth in a branch in your industry…or the corporate downsizing that would phase out your last job), you might have moved in a certain direction sooner.

Q40. What would you do if a fellow executive on your own corporate level wasn’t pulling his/her weight…and this was hurting your department?

BEST ANSWER: Try to gauge the political style of the firm and be guided accordingly. In general, fall back on universal principles of effective human relations – which in the end, embody the way you would like to be treated in a similar circumstance.

Q41. You’ve been with your firm a long time. Won’t it be hard switching to a new company?

BEST ANSWER: To overcome this objection, you must point to the many ways you have grown and adapted to changing conditions at your present firm. It has not been a static situation. Highlight the different responsibilities you’ve held, the wide array of new situations you’ve faced and conquered.

Q42. May I contact your present employer for a reference?

BEST ANSWER: Express your concern that you’d like to keep your job search private, but that in time, it will be perfectly okay.

Q43. Give me an example of your creativity (analytical skill…managing ability, etc.)

BEST ANSWER: Remember from Question 2 that you should commit to memory a list of your greatest and most recent achievements, ever ready on the tip of your tongue.

Q44. Where could you use some improvement?

BEST ANSWER: Keep this answer, like all your answers, positive. A good way to answer this question is to identify a cutting-edge branch of your profession (one that’s not essential to your employer’s needs) as an area you’re very excited about and want to explore more fully over the next six months.

Q45. What do you worry about?

BEST ANSWER: Redefine the word ‘worry’ so that it does not reflect negatively on you.

Q46. How many hours a week do you normally work?

BEST ANSWER: If you are in fact a workaholic and you sense this company would like that: Say you are a confirmed workaholic, that you often work nights and weekends. Your family accepts this because it makes you fulfilled.

Q47. What’s the most difficult part of being a (job title)?

BEST ANSWER: First, redefine “difficult” to be “challenging” which is more positive. Then, identify an area everyone in your profession considers challenging and in which you excel. Describe the process you follow that enables you to get splendid results…and be specific about those results.

Example: “I think every sales manager finds it challenging to motivate the troops in a recession. But that’s probably the strongest test of a top sales manager. I feel this is one area where I excel.”

Q48. The “Hypothetical Problem”

BEST ANSWER: Instead, describe the rational, methodical process you would follow in analyzing this problem, who you would consult with, generating possible solutions, choosing the best course of action, and monitoring the results.

Q49. What was the toughest challenge you’ve ever faced?

BEST ANSWER:This is an easy question if you’re prepared. Have a recent example ready that demonstrates either:

1. A quality most important to the job at hand; or

2. A quality that is always in demand, such as leadership, initiative, managerial skill, persuasiveness, courage, persistence, intelligence, etc.

Q50. Have you consider starting your own business?

BEST ANSWER: Again it’s best to:

1. Gauge this company’s corporate culture before answering and…

2. Be honest (which doesn’t mean you have to vividly share your fantasy of the franchise or bed-and-breakfast you someday plan to open).

Q51. What are your goals?

BEST ANSWER: Many executives in a position to hire you are strong believers in goal-setting. (It’s one of the reason they’ve achieved so much). They like to hire in kind.

Q52. What do you for when you hire people?

BEST ANSWER: Speak your own thoughts here, but for the best answer weave them around the three most important qualifications for any position.

1. Can the person do the work (qualifications)?

2. Will the person do the work (motivation)?

3. Will the person fit in (“our kind of team player”)?

Q53. Sell me this stapler…(this pencil…this clock…or some other object on interviewer’s desk).

BEST ANSWER: Of course, you already know the most important secret of all great salesmanship – “find out what people want, then show them how to get it.”

Q54. “The Salary Question” – How much money do you want?

TRAPS: May also be phrases as, “What salary are you worth?”…or, “How much are you making now?” This is your most important negotiation. Handle it wrong and you can blow the job offer or go to work at far less than you might have gotten.

Q55. The Illegal Question

BEST ANSWER: Under the ever-present threat of lawsuits, most interviewers are well aware of these taboos. Yet you may encounter, usually on a second or third interview, a senior executive who doesn’t interview much and forgets he can’t ask such questions.

Q56. The “Secret” Illegal Question

BEST ANSWER: Remember that just because the interviewer doesn’t ask an illegal question doesn’t mean he doesn’t have it. More than likely, he is going to come up with his own answer. So you might as well help him out.

Q57. What was the toughest part of your last job?

BEST ANSWER: State that there was nothing in your prior position that you found overly difficult, and let your answer go at that. If pressed to expand your answer, you could describe the aspects of the position you enjoyed more than others, making sure that you express maximum enjoyment for those tasks most important to the open position, and you enjoyed least those tasks that are unimportant to the position at hand.

Q58. How do you define success…and how do you measure up to your own definition?

BEST ANSWER: Give a well-accepted definition of success that leads right into your own stellar collection of achievements.

Q59. “The Opinion Question” – What do you think about …Abortion…The President…The Death Penalty…(or any other controversial subject)?

BEST ANSWER: In all of these instances, just remember the tale about student and the wise old rabbi. The scene is a seminary, where an overly serious student is pressing the rabbi to answer the ultimate questions of suffering, life and death. But no matter how hard he presses, the wise old rabbi will only answer each difficult question with a question of his own.

Q60. If you won $10 million lottery, would you still work?

BEST ANSWER: This type of question is aimed at getting at your bedrock attitude about work and how you feel about what you do. Your best answer will focus on your positive feelings.

Q61. Looking back on your last position, have you done your best work?

BEST ANSWER: To cover both possible paths this question can take, your answer should state that you always try to do your best, and the best of your career is right now. Like an athlete at the top of his game, you are just hitting your career stride thanks to several factors. Then, recap those factors, highlighting your strongest qualifications

Q62. Why should I hire you from the outside when I could promote someone from within?

BEST ANSWER: Help him see the qualifications that only you can offer.

Q63. Tell me something negative you’ve heard about our company…

BEST ANSWER: Just remember the rule – never be negative – and you’ll handle this one just fine.

Q64. On a scale of one to ten, rate me as an interviewer.

BEST ANSWER: Once again, never be negative. The interviewer will only resent criticism coming from you. This is the time to show your positivism.

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E Commerce, Knowledge, Product

Business Integration

What is Vertical and Horizontal integration?

Many a times, while gazing through the business daily, you come across the words “Vertical integration” or “Horizontal integration”. While some take it as a business gimmick; others do have but only a slight idea of what it is. In any case, as a regular business reader or as an entrepreneur, one needs to be aware about all the aspects of vertical and horizontal integration.
Both of these relate to strategies that are made to grow your business but they differ in approach. And most of the times which one to choose is not a very straight forward decision.
In this post we will try to completely understand Vertical and Horizontal integration and list certain key things that a business should take care of while looking forward to any of these options
What is Vertical Integration?

Best one is from Investorwords which says.
Vertical integration is the process in which several steps in the production and/or distribution of a product or service are controlled by a single company or entity, in order to increase that company’s or entity’s power in the marketplace.
Simply said, every single product that you can think of has a big life cycle. While you might recognize the product with the Brand name printed on it, many companies are involved in developing that product. These companies are necessarily not part of the brand you see.
Example of vertical integration: while you are relaxing on the beach sipping chilled cold drink, the brand that you see on the bottle is the producer of the drink but not necessarily the maker of the bottles that carry these drinks. This task of creating bottles is outsourced to someone who can do it better and at a cheaper cost. But once the company achieves significant scale it might plan to produce the bottles itself as it might have its own advantages (discussed below). This is what we call vertical integration. The company tries to get more things under their reign to gain more control over the profits the product / service delivers.
Types of Vertical Integrations:

There are basically 3 classifications of Vertical Integration namely:
1.        Backward integration – The example discussed above where in the company tries to own an input product company. Like a car company owning a company which makes tires.
2.        Forward integration – Where the business tries to control the post production areas, namely the distribution network. Like a mobile company opening its own Mobile retail chain.
3.        Balanced integration – You guessed it right, a mix of the above two. A balanced strategy to take advantages of both the worlds.
What is Horizontal Integration?

Much more common and simpler than vertical integration, Horizontal integration (also known as lateral integration) simply means a strategy to increase your market share by taking over a similar company. This takes over / merger / buyout can be done in the same geography or probably in other countries to increase your reach.
Examples of Horizontal Integration are many and available in plenty. Especially in case of the technology industry, where mergers and acquisitions happen in order to increase the reach of an entity.
As per me an apt example of Horizontal Integration will be You Tube, which was taken over my Google primarily because it had a strong and loyal user base. (There was no rocket science in technology used at YouTube which Google couldn’t have done without taking over, but yes to increase the viewers was definitely as complex without the takeover.)
Executing these strategies and key points to remembers

Vertical and Horizontal integration strategy generally can be done by businesses which have established themselves and probably have a stable life as compared to ones which have to address risks on a regular basis. The immediate advantage of implementing them is to
1.        Have economies of scale
2.        Expand your knowledge and capabilities
3.        Increase market (and profits)
4.        Own the whole life cycle so that you can change it the way required
5.        Reduce competition (by merging with them rather than competing)
6.        Provide better services
7.        Many more (refer links below)
Example:

Before signing off would recommend reading vertical integration case study from Wikipedia which highlights how Reliance Industries worked on backward integration and from textiles they got into polyester and later into petrochemicals. This was a brilliant strategy executed by the them owner Dhirubhai.
Google, Key Technology News, Knowledge, Mobile

Google, Apple CEOs in talks on patent issues

The two cos are keeping the lines of communication open against the backdrop of Apple’s decisive legal victory in a patent infringement case against Samsung.

Google Inc Chief Executive Larry Page and Apple CEO Tim Cook have been conducting behind-the-scenes talks about a range of intellectual property matters, including the mobile patent disputes between the companies, people familiar with the matter said.

The two executives had a phone conversation last week, the sources said. Discussions involving lower-level officials of the two companies are also on-going.

Page and Cook are expected to talk again in the coming weeks, though no firm date has been set, the sources said on Thursday. One of the sources told Reuters that a meeting had been scheduled for this Friday, but had been delayed for reasons that were unclear.

The two companies are keeping lines of communication open at a high level against the backdrop of Apple’s legal victory in a patent infringement case against Samsung, which uses Google’s Android software.

Last Friday, a jury awarded Apple $1.05 billion in damages and set the stage for a possible ban on sales of some Samsung products in a case that has been widely viewed as a “proxy war” between Apple and Google.

One possible scenario under consideration could be a truce involving disputes over basic features and functions in Google’s Android mobile software, one source said. But it was unclear whether Page and Cook were discussing a broad settlement of the various disputes between the two companies, most of which involve the burgeoning mobile computing area, or are focused on a more limited set of issues.

Competition between Google and Apple has heated up in recent years with the shift from PCs to mobile devices. Google’s Android software, which Apple’s late founder Steve Jobs denounced as a “stolen product,” has become the world’s No.1 smartphone operating system. The popularity of the software has been in tandem with patent infringement lawsuits involving various hardware vendors who use it, including Samsung and HTC.

The latest complaint was filed by Motorola Mobility, now a unit of Google, against Apple at the US International Trade Commission claiming some features of Apple’s devices infringe on its patents. A previous lawsuit between the two in a Chicago court was thrown out by a federal judge, who said neither side could prove damages.

Apple in recent months has moved to lessen its reliance on Google’s products. Apple recently unveiled its own mobile mapping software, replacing the Google product used in the iPhone, and said it would no longer offer Google’s YouTube as a pre-loaded app in future versions of its iPhone.

Cook took the helm at Apple a year ago, and Page stepped into the top job at Google a few months before that.

The conversation between Page and Cook last week did not result in any formal agreement, but the two executives agreed to continue talking, according to one source.

Google’s Larry Page, who sat out several public speaking engagements earlier this summer because of an unspecified medical condition affecting his voice, has continued to run Google’s business.

Apple and Google declined to comment on any discussions.

Govt of India, India, Knowledge

Government of India, Apex Organization and their Roles

Directorate General of Shipping
The Directorate General of Shipping, India deals with implementation of shipping policy and legislation so as to ensure the safety of life and ships at sea, prevention of marine pollution, promotion of maritime education and training in coordination with the International Maritime Organization, regulation of employment and welfare of seamen, development of coastal shipping, augmentation of shipping tonnage, examination and certification of Merchant Navy Officers, Supervision and Control of the allied offices under its administrative jurisdiction.

Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH)
The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) was established in 1993 under the administrative control of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas through Government of India Resolution. Objectives of DGH are to promote sound management of the oil and natural gas resources having a balanced regard for environment, safety, technological and economic aspects of the petroleum activity.

DGH has been entrusted with several responsibilities like implementation of New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP), matters concerning the Production Sharing Contracts for discovered fields and exploration blocks, promotion of investment in E&P Sector and monitoring of E&P activities including review of reservoir performance of producing fields. In addition, DGH is also engaged in opening up of new unexplored areas for future exploration and development of non-conventional hydrocarbon energy sources like Coal Bed Methane (CBM) as also futuristic hydrocarbon energy resources like Gas Hydrates and Oil Shale’s.

Function & Responsibilities

Review exploration programmes of companies for adequacy

o Half yearly review of work programmes in Petroleum Exploration Licence (PEL) areas of ONGC & OIL, awarded on Nomination Basis.

    o Processing and review of all the PEL and ML cases for the Ministry.
    o Review of work programme and budget of all exploration blocks and fields under PSCs.
    o Monitoring of all CBM blocks awarded under CBM rounds I, II & III.
    o Change of Participating interest and assignment cases.
    o Participation in Management Committee meetings.
    o Cost monitoring, statutory payments to government, Profit sharing to government.
    o Facilitating statutory & other clearances.
    o Extension of phases, relinquishment of acreages, assignment, appointment of auditor, approval of audited accounts and other PSC related issues.
    o Participation in arbitration matters.
    o Advise Government on policy formulations.
    o Issuance of essentiality certificates.

Technical & financial evaluation and review of development plans of commercial discoveries
Concurrent review of reservoir performance of all the major fields under private / JV operators and major fields of NOCs including Bombay High .
Advise Government on offering and award of acreages under NELP & CBM rounds for exploration as well as, matters relating to relinquishment of acreages.

o Conduct Studies, Surveys, Information Drilling and Related Activities in Unexplored or Poorly Explored Areas.

    o Upgrade information in these areas viz. reprocessing and reinterpretation of data.
    o Identification of blocks, preparation of Basin Dockets & Data Packages, organizing road shows in the country and abroad for promotion of blocks & sale of data.
    o Technical evaluation of NELP and CBM round bids and recommendations to Ministry.
    o Assist MOPNG in contract negotiations & their finalisation.

Technical advice to MOP&NG on issues relevant to exploration and optimal exploitation of oil and gas

o Monitoring of Production Sharing Contracts (PSC) as Govt. representative to achieve exploration targets and optimal exploitation of hydrocarbons in the country.

    o Technical advice on preparation of 5 year plans.
    o Technical advice on Quarterly Progress Reports of ONGC and OIL.

Preservation, upkeep and storage of data / samples pertaining to petroleum exploration, production, etc. and the preparation of data packages for acreage on offer

o Creation and maintenance of National E&P Data Base and Archive System.

    o Storage of data acquired by DGH and oil and gas companies.

Field Surveillance of producing fields and blocks to monitor their performance
Compliance of Ministry of Defence (MOD) guidelines

o DGH scientists remain on-board all the seismic vessels and deep water drilling rigs during operation.

    o DGH geophysicists accompany all raw / field seismic and G.M. data whenever it leaves the country for processing and interpretation.

All other matters incidental there to and such other functions as may be assigned by Government

o Coordinate the technical activities of all projects under National Gas Hydrate Programme (NGHP).

    o To provide input material for Parliament Questions, Parliamentary Committees relating to DGH and Pvt /JV operations.
    o Issuance of Essentiality Certificates for import of goods used in petroleum operations.
    o Clearances issued during April 2007 to March 2008: 13,221 cases valued at Rs. 34,957.51 cores.
    o Facilitating clearances from MOD for foreign rigs/vessels and from MOEF for all projects under Pvt /JV operations.

Directorate General of Civil Aviation

Directorate General of Civil Aviation is an attached office of the Ministry of Civil Aviation.
The Directorate General of Civil Aviation is the regulatory body in the field of Civil Aviation primarily dealing with safety issues. It is responsible for regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety and airworthiness standards. It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions with International Civil Aviation Organization.
The headquarters are located in New Delhi with regional offices in the various parts of India.
There are 14 (fourteen) Regional Airworthiness Offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Bhubaneshwar, Kanpur, Guwahati and Patiala.
Apart from the Regional Airworthiness Offices, there are 5 (five) Regional Air Safety offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad, the Regional Research and Development Office located at Bangalore and the Gliding Centre at Pune.
India is participated in ICAO by the Representative of India.
Function & Responsibilities

o Registration of civil aircraft;

    o Formulation of standards of airworthiness for civil aircraft registered in India and grant of certificates of airworthiness to such aircraft;
    o Licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers and flight engineers, and conducting examinations and checks for that purpose;
    o Licensing of air traffic controllers;
    o Certification of aerodromes and CNS/ATM facilities;
    o Maintaining a check on the proficiency of flight crew, and also of other operational personnel such as flight dispatchers and cabin crew;
    o Granting of Air Operator’s Certificates to Indian carriers and regulation of air transport services operating to/from/within/over India by Indian and foreign operators, including clearance of scheduled and non-scheduled flights of such operators;
    o Conducting investigation into accidents/incidents and taking accident prevention measures including formulation of implementation of Safety Aviation Management Programmes;
    o Carrying out amendments to the Aircraft Act, the Aircraft Rules and the Civil
    o Aviation Requirements for complying with the amendments to ICAO Annexes, and initiating proposals for amendment to any other Act or for passing a new Act in order to give effect to an international Convention or amendment to an existing Convention;
    o Coordination of ICAO matters with all agencies and sending replies to State
    o Letters, and taking all necessary action arising out of the Universal Safety
    o Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) of ICAO;
    o Supervision of the institutes/clubs/schools engaged in flying training including simulator training, AME training or any other training related with aviation, with a view to ensuring a high quality of training;
    o Granting approval to aircraft maintenance, repair and manufacturing organizations and their continued oversight;
    o To act as a nodal agency for implementing Annex 9 provisions in India and for coordinating matters relating to facilitation at Indian airports including holding meetings of the National Facilitation Committee;
    o Rendering advice to the Government on matters relating to air transport including bilateral air services agreements, on ICAO matters and generally on all technical matters relating to civil aviation, and to act as an overall regulatory and developmental body for civil aviation in the country;
    o Coordination at national level for flexi-use of air space by civil and military air traffic agencies and interaction with ICAO for provision of more air routes for civil use through Indian air space;
    o Keeping a check on aircraft noise and engine emissions in accordance with
    o ICAO Annex 16 and collaborating with the environmental authorities in this matter, if required;
    o Promoting indigenous d e s i g n and manufacture of aircraft and aircraft components by acting as a catalytic agent;
    o Approving training programmes of operators for carriage of dangerous goods, issuing authorizations for carriage of dangerous goods, etc.

Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO)

Organization under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India

Function & Responsibilities

o Laying down standards of drugs, cosmetics, diagnostics and devices.

    o Laying down regulatory measures, amendments to Acts and Rules.
    o To regulate market authorization of new drugs.
    o To approve licenses to manufacture certain categories of drugs as Central Licence Approving Authority i.e. for Blood Banks, Large Volume Parenteral and Vaccines & Sera.
    o To regulate the standards of imported drugs.
    o Work relating to the Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB) and Drugs Consultative Committee (DCC).
    o Testing of drugs by Central Drugs Labs.
    o Publication of Indian Pharmacopoeia.

o To regulate clinical research in India.

      o Coordinating the activities of the State Drugs Control Organizations to achieve uniform administration of the Act; and policy guidance.  
      o Guidance on technical matters.  
      o Participation in the WHO GMP certification scheme.    
      o Monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADR).    
      o Conducting training programmes for regulatory officials & Govt. Analysts.    
      o Distribution of quotas of narcotic drugs for use in medicinal formulations.    
      o Screening of drug formulations available in Indian market.    
      o Evaluation/Screening of applications for granting No Objection Certificates for export of unapproved/banned drugs.

Directorate General of Mines Safety
Directorate General of Mines Safety, DGMS in short, is the Regulatory Agency under the Ministry of labour and employment, Government of India in matters pertaining to occupational safety, health and welfare of persons employed in mines (Coal, Metal ferrous and oil-mines).
Under the Constitution of India, safety, welfare and health of workers employed in mines are the concern of the Central Government (Entry 55-Union List-Article 246). The objective is regulated by the Mines Act, 1952 and the Rules and Regulations framed there under. These are administered by the directorate general of Mines Safety (DGMS), under the Union Ministry of Labour & Employment. Apart from administering the Mines Act and the subordinate legislation there under, DGMS also administers a few other allied legislation, including the Indian Electricity Act.
The organization has its headquarters at Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and is headed by director general of Mines Safety. At the headquarter, the Director-General is assisted by specialist staff-officers in mining, electrical and mechanical, occupational health, law, survey, statistics, administration and accounts disciplines. The headquarters has also a technical library and S&T laboratories as a back-up support to the organization.
Officers appointed to different technical posts in DGMS are selected by U.P.S.C. They are required to have Degree in Mining or Electrical or Mechanical Engineering and several years of experience, varying from seven to ten years of working in responsible capacity in Mines and allied Industry. Besides officers of mining cadre possess First Class Mine Manager’s Certificate of Competency. The Occupational Health cadre is manned by qualified and experienced medical personnel. Due to the nature of work performed by the officers of DGMS, the Govt. of India declared the organization as “S & T Institution” on the recommendation of Science and Technology Department of Govt. of India, in November 1987.

Director General of Police
In India the director general of police (DGP) or inspector general of police (state) is a three-star rank and the highest ranking police officer in Indian States & Union Territories. All DGPs/IGPs are Indian Police Service (IPS) officers. The DGP/IGP is usually the head of the state police force in every Indian state. There may also be additional officers in the state who hold the rank of DGP/IGP. Common appointments for such officers include director of Vigilance and Anti-Corruption Bureau, director general of prisons, director general of fire forces and civil defense, Criminal Investigation Department(CID),Police Housing Society etc. Additionally officers who hold the rank of DGP/IGP may have commensurate appointments in central government organizations such as director, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), director SVPNPA, DG Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) etc. The rank insignia of a director general of police or commissioner of police (state) is the national emblem over crossed sword and baton

Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals
Function & Responsibilities

o It is central purchase & quality assurance organisation of Govt. Of India, under Department of Supply, Ministry of Commerce.

    o In the year 1860, the British govt. Evolved a concept of central buying & set up India stores department in London for meeting procurement needs of govt. Of India.
    o Established in 1951 in its present form for rendering procurement services to central & state govt. By placing rate contracts for common user items & contracts against their ad-hoc demands.
    o Adhoc procurement decentralized in December, 1991. Main function now is to conclude rate contracts.
    o Quality assurance functions continue to remain centralized as before.
    o Continues to be the nodal agency of govt. Of India for purchase policy. & procedure.
    o Govt. Departments/organisations, who have not built-up their own infrastructure for purchase, can raise their demands on DGS&D for ad-hoc procurement.
    o Handling procurement against several World Bank & Asian development bank aided projects for modernisation of polytechnics & vocational training centres, national aids control. National/ state highways, hydrology project
    o Services continue to be available to public sector undertakings & autonomous bodies.
    o Has a full-fledged quality assurance wing rendering wide ranging technical services inclusive of formulation of need based procurement specifications, vendor development/evaluation and assuring quality of goods for their conformity Service charges range from 0.25 to 2 %.
    o Cargo clearance services at major ports are available.
    o Manned by qualified engineers recruited through Indian engineering service examination by UPSC, govt. Of India.
    o State governments, public undertakings, autonomous bodies, quasi-public bodies, etc. Who desire to avail the services of DGS&D can do so. However, indent from these departments should be accompanied by a pre-deposit of funds sufficient to cover the cost of stores. Pre-deposit of funds may be in the form of demand draft or crossed cheque drawn on the reserve bank of India/state bank of India duly marked ‘on government account only’ and in favour of chief controller of accounts, department of supply, new Delhi.
    o Consultancy services of DGS&D are offered to desirous organisations for availing r/c prices, finalising tender documents for their own procurement and providing quality assurance support.
    o Databank on supplier’s rate contracts is maintained to arrange supplies of clothing and tent age items etc. For meeting emergency requirements during disasters/natural calamities.
    o Facility for training in quality & purchase management field are also available in DGS&D
    o Consultancy disaster management

Investigation Agencies
The Government of India is determined to fight all economic crimes.
For this purpose, the Government of India has set up the following Investigation Agencies which function under the Department of Revenue in Union Ministry of Finance:-

· The Central Economic Intelligence Bureau (Apex body)

    · Directorate General of Revenue Intelligence (for Customs related offences)
    · Directorate of Enforcement (for Foreign Exchange related offences)
    · Directorate General of Anti-Evasion (for Central Excise related offences)
    · Directorate General of Income Tax(Investigation) (for Income Tax related offences)
    · Narcotics Control Bureau (for Drugs related offences)

The Central Economic Intelligence Bureau (Apex body)

It is well recognised that the evasion of one tax usually entails evasion of other taxes as well. For the purpose of effective information gathering, collation and dissemination, a close co-ordination between the Agencies enforcing different tax laws is essential.

    Hence, the Central Economic Intelligence Bureau was set up with the intention of creating a body which would coordinate and strengthen the intelligence gathering activities as well as investigative efforts of all the Agencies which enforce economic laws. Accordingly, the following functions have been entrusted to the Central Economic Intelligence Bureau:-

Function & Responsibilities

o To collect intelligence and information regarding aspects of the black economy which require close watch and investigation. Also, keeping in view the scene of economic offences, the Bureau is required to collect information and provide periodical and special reports to the concerned authorities;

    o To keep a watch on different aspects of economic offences and the emergence of new types of such offences. The Bureau was made responsible for evolving counter -measures required for effectively dealing with existing and new types of economic offences;
    o To act as the nodal agency for cooperation and coordination at the international level with other customs, drugs, law enforcement and other agencies in the area of economic offences….
    o To implementation of the COFEPOSA(i.e. Conservation of Foreign Exchange & Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1971 which provides for preventive detention of persons involved in smuggling and foreign exchange rackets under certain specified circumstances)
    o To act as a Secretariat of the Economic Intelligence Council which acts as the apex body to ensure full co-ordination among the various Agencies including Central Bureau of Investigation, Reserve Bank of India, Intelligence Bureau etc.

Directorate General of Revenue Intelligence
Function & Responsibilities

o Collection of intelligence about smuggling of contraband goods, narcotics, under-invoicing, over-invoicing etc. through sources of India and abroad, including secret sources;

    o Analysis and dissemination of such intelligence to the field formations for action;
    o Working out intelligence directly, where necessary;
    o Keeping watch over important seizures and investigation cases;
    o Associating or taking over the investigations which warrant specialised handling by the Directorate;
    o Guiding important investigations/prosecution cases;
    o Functioning as the liaison authority for exchange of information among ESCAP countries for combating international smuggling and customs frauds in terms of the recommendations of the ESCAP conference;
    o Keeping liaison with foreign countries, Indian Missions and enforcement agencies abroad on anti-smuggling matters;
    o Keeping liaison with the CBI and through them with the INTERPOL;
    o Coordinating, directing and controlling anti-smuggling operations on the Indo-Nepal border;
    o Referring cases registered under the Customs Act to the Income Tax Department for action under the Income Tax Act;
    o Keeping statistics of seizures and prices/rates etc. for watching trends of smuggling and supplying required material to the Ministry of Finance and other Ministries; and
    o Studying and suggesting remedies for loopholes in law and procedures to combat smuggling.

Directorate General of Economic Enforcement

The Directorate of Enforcement, with its Headquarters at New Delhi is headed by the Director of Enforcement. There are five Regional offices at Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, Kolkata and Delhi headed by Special Directors of Enforcement.
Zone Offices of the Directorate are at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Chennai, Cochin, Delhi, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jalandhar, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Patna and Srinagar. These are headed by a Joint Director.
The Directorate has Sub-Zone Offices at Bhubaneshwar, Calicut, Indore, Madurai, Nagpur and Varanasi which are headed by a Deputy Director.

Function & Responsibilities

o Investigate contraventions of the provisions of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999(FEMA) which came into force with effect from 1.6.2000. Contraventions of FEMA are dealt with by way of adjudication by designated authorities of ED and penalties upto three times the sum involved can be imposed.

    o Investigate offence of money laundering under the provisions of Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002(PMLA) which came into force with effect from 1.7.2005 and to take actions of attachment and confiscation of property if the same is determined to be proceeds of crime derived from a Scheduled Offence under PMLA, and to prosecute the persons involved in the offence of money laundering. There are 156 offences under 28 statutes which are Scheduled Offences under PMLA.
    o Adjudicate Show Cause Notices issued under the repealed Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (FERA) upto 31.5.2002 for the alleged contraventions of the Act which may result in imposition of penalties. Pursue prosecutions launched under FERA in the concerned courts.
    o Sponsor cases of preventive detention under Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974(COFEPOSA) in regard to contraventions of FEMA.
    o Sponsor cases of preventive detention under Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974(COFEPOSA) in regard to contraventions of FEMA.

Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation
Function & Responsibilities

o The Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation deal with all matters connected with investigations under the Income Tax Act of the Central Government. Some of the more specific functions entrusted to the Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation include :

    o Head the investigation wing of the Income Tax Department at the Regional Level;
    o Collection of intelligence pertaining to evasion of Direct Taxes;
    o Organise search action to unearth black money- from time to time;
    o Dissemination of information and intelligence collected- by passing on the same to the concerned authorities including assessing authorities;
    o Keep liaison and hold meetings with other organisations in the region to ensure co-ordination and smooth flow of information;
    o Take appropriate steps to ensure that information and other persons having information about tax evaders come forward with the same to the Department. Disbursement of rewards would be one of the measures.

Directorate of Income Tax Intelligence and Criminal Investigation

The Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation deal with all matters connected with investigations under the Income Tax Act of the Central Government. Some of the more specific functions entrusted to the Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation include:

Function & Responsibilities

o Head the investigation wing of the Income Tax Department at the Regional Level;

    o Collection of intelligence pertaining to evasion of Direct Taxes;
    o Organise search action to unearth black money- from time to time;
    o Dissemination of information and intelligence collected- by passing on the same to the concerned authorities including assessing authorities;
    o Keep liaison and hold meetings with other organisations in the region to ensure co-ordination and smooth flow of information;
    o Take appropriate steps to ensure that information and other persons having information about tax evaders come forward with the same to the Department. Disbursement of rewards would be one of the measures.

Directorate General of Anti-Evasion
Function & Responsibilities

o The growth of the Central Excise revenue and extension of its coverage to nearly all manufactured products brought home the need for a specialised intelligence agency to target prevention of Central Excise duty evasion. The Directorate of Anti Evasion was created for this purpose with the following functions:

    o Collection, collation and dissemination of intelligence relating to evasion of central excise duties on an all India basis;
    o Studying the modus operandi of evasion peculiar to excisable commodities and to alert the Collectorates of their possible use;
    o Studying the price structures, marketing patterns and classification of commodities in respect of which possibilities of evasion are likely with a view to advising the Collectorates for plugging loopholes;
    o Supplementing and co-ordinating the efforts of the field formations in investigation in cases of evasion of duty of Rs.10,000/- and above, wherever necessary;
    o Co-ordinating action with Enforcement agencies like Income-tax, Sales-tax etc. In respect of cases in which central excise evasion has come to notice;
    o Investigation of offences involving evasion of central excise duties having ramification in more than one Collectorates, including investigation of complicated cases selected by the Directorate or entrusted by the Ministry to it;
    o Having at all times, a complete, detailed and up-to-date study of the taxation laws and implementation machinery and to have proper appreciation and assessment of possibilities for evasion;
    o Assisting in an advisory capacity in proper deployment of the Central Excise Preventive Staff in the Central Excise Collectorates for effective anti-evasion measures;
    o Examining and studying the effect and implementation of various tax concessions, exemptions and relaxations in controls; and to make recommendations to the Government from time to time to see whether they are sources of evasion;
    o Maintaining liaison with other Central and State agencies in all matters pertaining to tax evasion”

Narcotics Control Bureau

National Policy on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is based on the directive principles contained in Article 47 of the Indian Constitution which directs that the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption, except for medicinal purposes, of intoxicating drugs injurious to health. The government’s policy on the subject which flows from the above said constitutional provision is also guided by the international conventions on the subject. India is a signatory to:
· Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol.

    · Conventions on Psychotropic Substances 1971.
    · United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988.

o The broad legislative policy in the matter is contained in the three Central Acts, viz. Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, and The Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988. The responsibility of drug abuse control, which is a central function, is carried out through a number of Ministries, Departments and Organisations. These include Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue which is having the nodal co-ordination role as administrator of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 and the Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988.

      o The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 which came into effect from the 14th November, 1985 made an express provision for constituting a Central Authority for the purpose of exercising the powers and functions of the Central Government under the Act.
      o In exercise of the powers, the NARCOTICS CONTROL BUREAU was constituted with Headquarters at Delhi with effect from the 17th March, 1986. The Bureau, subject to the supervision and control of the Central Government, is to exercise the powers and functions of the Central Government for taking measures with respect to:
      o Co-ordination of actions by various offices, State Governments and other authorities under the N.D.P.S. Act, Customs Act, Drugs and Cosmetics Act and any other law for the time being in force in connection with the enforcement provisions of the NDPS Act, 1985.
      o Implementation of the obligation in respect of counter measures against illicit traffic under the various international conventions and protocols that are in force at present or which may be ratified or acceded to by India in future.
      o Assistance to concerned authorities in foreign countries and concerned international organisations to facilitate coordination and universal action for prevention and suppression of illicit traffic in these drugs and substances.
      o Coordination of actions taken by the other concerned Ministries, Departments and Organisations in respect of matters relating to drug abuse.
      o The Narcotics control Bureau is the apex coordinating agency. It also functions as an enforcement agency through its field units located at Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, and madras, Varanasi, Jodhpur, Chandigarh, Jammu, Ahmedabad, Impala and Thiruvananthapuram. The Zone Units collect and analyses data related to seizures of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substance, study of trends, modus operandi, collection and dissemination of intelligence and work in close cooperation with the Customs, State Police and other law enforcement agencies. The assistance provided by the Bureau has been acknowledged by other Governments and many international bodies.

Attorney General of India
The Attorney General for India is appointed by the President and holds office during the pleasure of the President. He must be a person qualified to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court. It is the duty of the Attorney-General in India to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may be referred or assigned to him by the President and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under the constitution or any other law. In the performance of his duties, he has the right of audience in all courts in India as well as the right to vote. In the discharge of his functions, the Attorney General is assisted by the Solicitor-General and the Additional Solicitors-General.
The attorney general of India is the Indian government’s chief legal adviser, and its primary lawyer in dealing with the Supreme Court of India. The attorney general for India is appointed by the President under Article 76(1) of the Constitution. The solicitor general of India is appointed to assist the attorney general along with four additional solicitors general.

Solicitor General of India
The Solicitor General for India is subordinate to the Attorney General of India, who is the Indian government’s chief legal advisor, and its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court of India. The Solicitor General for India is the second law officer of the country, assists the Attorney General, and is himself assisted by several Additional Solicitors General of India Like the Attorney General of India, the Solicitor General and the Additional Solicitors General advice the Government and appear on behalf of the Union of India in terms of the Law Officers (Terms and Conditions) Rules, 1972[. However, unlike the post of Attorney General of India, which is a Constitutional post under Article 76 of the Constitution of India, the posts of the Solicitor General and the Additional Solicitors General are merely statutory.

Controller General of Accounts
Under Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, Govt of India

Controller General of Accounts is the principal Accounts Adviser to the Government of India and is responsible for establishing and maintaining a technically sound management accounting system. He prepares a critical analysis of expenditures, revenues, borrowings and the deficit for the Finance Minister every month.

    He also prepares annual Appropriation Accounts and Union Finance Accounts for presentation to the parliament.

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution of India under Chapter V, who audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. The CAG is also the external auditor of government-owned companies. The reports of the CAG are taken into consideration by the Public Accounts Committees, which are special committees in the Parliament of India and the state legislatures. The CAG of India is also the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department, which has over 58,000 employees across the country.

    The Comptroller & Auditor General of India plays a key role in the functioning of the financial committees of Parliament and the State Legislatures. He has come to be recognised as a ‘friend, philosopher and guide’ of the Committee. His Reports generally form the basis of the Committees’ working, although they are not precluded from examining issues not brought out in his Reports. He scrutinises the notes which the Ministries submit to the Committees and helps the Committees to check the correctness submit to the Committees and helps the Committees to check the correctness of facts and figures in their draft reports.
    The Financial Committees present their Report to the Parliament/ State Legislature with their observations and recommendations. The various Ministries / Department of the Government are required to inform the Committees of the action taken by them on the recommendations of the Committees (which are generally accepted) and the Committees present Action Taken Reports to Parliament / Legislature.
    In respect of those cases in Audit Reports, which could not be discussed in detail by the Committees, written answers are obtained from the Department / Ministry concerned and are sometimes incorporated in the Reports presented to the Parliament / State Legislature. This ensures that the audit Reports are not taken lightly by the Government, even if the entire report is not deliberated upon by the Committee.
    Audit Jurisdiction

    o The organisations subject to the audit of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India are:-

      o All the Union and State Government departments and offices including the Indian Railways and Posts and Telecommunications.
      o About 1200 public commercial enterprises controlled by the Union and State governments, i.e. government companies and corporations.
      o Around 400 non-commercial autonomous bodies and authorities owned or controlled by the Union or the States.
      o Over 4400 authorities and bodies substantially financed from Union or State revenues

Audit of Government Companies (Commercial Audit)

 There is a special arrangement for the audit of companies where the equity participation by Government is 51 per cent or more. The auditors of government companies are appointed or re-appointed by C&AG in terms of provisions of section 619(2) of the Companies Act., 1956 in view of Companies Amendment Act, 2000, who gives the auditors directions on the manner in which the audit should be conducted by them. He is also empowered to comment upon the audit reports of the primary auditors. In addition, he conducts a supplementary audit of such companies and reports the results of his audit to Parliament and State Legislatures.

Audit Board Setup in Commercial Audit

A unique feature of the audit conducted by the Indian Audit and Accounts Department is the constitution of Audit Boards for conducting comprehensive audit appraisals of the working of Public Sector Enterprises engaged in diverse sectors of the economy.

      These Audit Boards associate with them experts in disciplines relevant to the appraisals. They discuss their findings and conclusions with the managements of the enterprises and their controlling ministries and departments of government to ascertain their view points before finalisation.
      The results of such comprehensive appraisals are incorporated by the Comptroller and Auditor General in his reports

Nature of Audit

While fulfilling his Constitutional obligations, the Comptroller & Auditor General examines various aspects of Government expenditure. The audit done by C&A G is broadly classified into Regularity Audit and Performance Audit.

Regularity Audit (Compliance)

    Audit against provision of funds to ascertain whether the moneys shown as expenditure in the Accounts were authorised for the purpose for which they were spent.

      Audit against rules and regulation to see that the expenditure incurred was in conformity with the laws, rules and regulations framed to regulate the procedure for expending public money.
      Audit of sanctions to expenditure to see that every item of expenditure was done with the approval of the competent authority in the Government for expending the public money.
      Propriety Audit which extends beyond scrutinising the mere formality of expenditure to it wisdom and economy and to bring to light cases of improper expenditure or waste of public money.
      While conducting the audit of receipts of the Central and State Governments, the Comptroller & Auditor General satisfies himself that the rules and procedures ensure that assessment, collection and allocation of revenue are done in accordance with the law and there is no leakage of revenue which legally should come to Government.

Performance Audit

Performance audit to see that Government programmes have achieved the desired objectives at lowest cost and given the intended benefits. For a complete list of Performance Appraisals since 1983

Regularity Audit (Financial)

In regularity (financial) audit and in other types of audit when applicable, auditors should analyse the financial statements to establish whether acceptable accounting    standards for financial reporting and disclosure are complied with. Analysis of financial statements should be performed to such a degree that a rational basis is obtained to express an opinion on financial statements.

Action on Audit Reports

 The scrutiny of the Annual Accounts and the Audit Reports thereon by the Parliament as a whole would be an arduous task, considering their diverse and specialised nature, besides imposing excessive demands on the limited time available to the Parliament for discussion of issues of national importance. Therefore the Parliament and the State Legislatures have, for this purpose, constituted specialized Committees like the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) and the Committee on Public Undertakings (COPU), to which these audit Reports and Annual Accounts automatically stand referred.

Public Accounts Committee

The Public Accounts Committee satisfies itself:-

a. That the moneys (shown in the accounts) were disbursed legally on the service or     purpose to which they were applied.

        b. That the expenditure was authorised.
        c. That re-appropriation (i.e. distribution of funds.

It is also the duty of the PAC to examine the statement of accounts of autonomous and semi-autonomous bodies, the audit of which is conducted by the Comptroller & Auditor General either under the directions of the President or by a Statute of Parliament.

Committee on Public Undertakings

The Committee on Public Undertakings exercises the same financial control on the public sector undertakings as the Public Accounts Committee exercises over the functioning of the Government Departments. The functions of the Committee are:-

       A.to examines the reports and accounts of public undertakings.
       B.to examines the reports of the Comptroller & Auditor General on public undertakings.
       C.to examines the efficiency of public undertakings and to see whether they are being     managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices.
      The examination of public enterprises by the Committee takes the form of comprehensive appraisal or evaluation of performance of the undertaking. It involves a thorough examination, including evaluation of the policies, programmes and financial working of the undertaking.
      The objective of the Financial Committees, in doing so, is not to focus only on the individual irregularity, but on the defects in the system which led to such irregularity, and the need for correction of such systems and procedures.

 Local Bodies Audit

    With the introduction of the third tier of government in the pursuance of the 73rd Amendment of the

UNION AUDIT REPORTS

      The Union Audit Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, contain the findings of transaction audit and performance audit in the areas of:

                                    Civil Audit
                                    Audit of Autonomous Bodies

        Defence Services
        Railways
        Receipts of the Government
        Central Commercial

The Audit of the CAG is bifurcated into two streams namely Performance Audit and Regularity (Compliance) Audit. 

     While audit of the Civil Departments, Railways and Defence are conducted as per the direct mandate in the constitution and relevant provisions of the DPC Act, the Commercial Audit is conducted under the provisions of Company Act. Autonomous Bodies are audited as per the mandate in the act establishing the body.
      The reports of the CAG are deliberated upon by the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) of the parliament, save the commercial reports which are examined by the Committee on Public Undertakings (COPU).
Govt of India, India, Knowledge

Government of India, Apex Organization and their Roles

Directorate General of Shipping

    The Directorate General of Shipping, India deals with implementation of shipping policy and legislation so as to ensure the safety of life and ships at sea, prevention of marine pollution, promotion of maritime education and training in coordination with the International Maritime Organization, regulation of employment and welfare of seamen, development of coastal shipping, augmentation of shipping tonnage, examination and certification of Merchant Navy Officers, Supervision and Control of the allied offices under its administrative jurisdiction.

Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH)

    The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) was established in 1993 under the administrative control of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas through Government of India Resolution. Objectives of DGH are to promote sound management of the oil and natural gas resources having a balanced regard for environment, safety, technological and economic aspects of the petroleum activity.

    DGH has been entrusted with several responsibilities like implementation of New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP), matters concerning the Production Sharing Contracts for discovered fields and exploration blocks, promotion of investment in E&P Sector and monitoring of E&P activities including review of reservoir performance of producing fields. In addition, DGH is also engaged in opening up of new unexplored areas for future exploration and development of non-conventional hydrocarbon energy sources like Coal Bed Methane (CBM) as also futuristic hydrocarbon energy resources like Gas Hydrates and Oil Shale’s.

Function & Responsibilities
Review exploration programmes of companies for adequacy

    o Half yearly review of work programmes in Petroleum Exploration Licence (PEL) areas of ONGC & OIL, awarded on Nomination Basis. o Processing and review of all the PEL and ML cases for the Ministry.
    o Review of work programme and budget of all exploration blocks and fields under PSCs.
    o Monitoring of all CBM blocks awarded under CBM rounds I, II & III.
    o Change of Participating interest and assignment cases.
    o Participation in Management Committee meetings.
    o Cost monitoring, statutory payments to government, Profit sharing to government.
    o Facilitating statutory & other clearances.
    o Extension of phases, relinquishment of acreages, assignment, appointment of auditor, approval of audited accounts and other PSC related issues.
    o Participation in arbitration matters.
    o Advise Government on policy formulations.
    o Issuance of essentiality certificates.

Technical & financial evaluation and review of development plans of commercial discoveries Concurrent review of reservoir performance of all the major fields under private / JV operators and major fields of NOCs including Bombay High .
Advise Government on offering and award of acreages under NELP & CBM rounds for exploration as well as, matters relating to relinquishment of acreages.

    o Conduct Studies, Surveys, Information Drilling and Related Activities in Unexplored or Poorly Explored Areas. o Upgrade information in these areas viz. reprocessing and reinterpretation of data.
    o Identification of blocks, preparation of Basin Dockets & Data Packages, organizing road shows in the country and abroad for promotion of blocks & sale of data.
    o Technical evaluation of NELP and CBM round bids and recommendations to Ministry.
    o Assist MOPNG in contract negotiations & their finalisation.

Technical advice to MOP&NG on issues relevant to exploration and optimal exploitation of oil and gas

    o Monitoring of Production Sharing Contracts (PSC) as Govt. representative to achieve exploration targets and optimal exploitation of hydrocarbons in the country. o Technical advice on preparation of 5 year plans.
    o Technical advice on Quarterly Progress Reports of ONGC and OIL.

Preservation, upkeep and storage of data / samples pertaining to petroleum exploration, production, etc. and the preparation of data packages for acreage on offer

    o Creation and maintenance of National E&P Data Base and Archive System. o Storage of data acquired by DGH and oil and gas companies.

Field Surveillance of producing fields and blocks to monitor their performance Compliance of Ministry of Defence (MOD) guidelines

    o DGH scientists remain on-board all the seismic vessels and deep water drilling rigs during operation. o DGH geophysicists accompany all raw / field seismic and G.M. data whenever it leaves the country for processing and interpretation.

All other matters incidental there to and such other functions as may be assigned by Government

    o Coordinate the technical activities of all projects under National Gas Hydrate Programme (NGHP). o To provide input material for Parliament Questions, Parliamentary Committees relating to DGH and Pvt /JV operations.
    o Issuance of Essentiality Certificates for import of goods used in petroleum operations.
    o Clearances issued during April 2007 to March 2008: 13,221 cases valued at Rs. 34,957.51 cores.
    o Facilitating clearances from MOD for foreign rigs/vessels and from MOEF for all projects under Pvt /JV operations.

Directorate General of Civil Aviation

Directorate General of Civil Aviation is an attached office of the Ministry of Civil Aviation.
The Directorate General of Civil Aviation is the regulatory body in the field of Civil Aviation primarily dealing with safety issues. It is responsible for regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety and airworthiness standards. It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions with International Civil Aviation Organization.
The headquarters are located in New Delhi with regional offices in the various parts of India.
There are 14 (fourteen) Regional Airworthiness Offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Bhubaneshwar, Kanpur, Guwahati and Patiala.
Apart from the Regional Airworthiness Offices, there are 5 (five) Regional Air Safety offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad, the Regional Research and Development Office located at Bangalore and the Gliding Centre at Pune.
India is participated in ICAO by the Representative of India.
Function & Responsibilities

    o Registration of civil aircraft;o Formulation of standards of airworthiness for civil aircraft registered in India and grant of certificates of airworthiness to such aircraft;
    o Licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers and flight engineers, and conducting examinations and checks for that purpose;
    o Licensing of air traffic controllers;
    o Certification of aerodromes and CNS/ATM facilities;
    o Maintaining a check on the proficiency of flight crew, and also of other operational personnel such as flight dispatchers and cabin crew;
    o Granting of Air Operator’s Certificates to Indian carriers and regulation of air transport services operating to/from/within/over India by Indian and foreign operators, including clearance of scheduled and non-scheduled flights of such operators;
    o Conducting investigation into accidents/incidents and taking accident prevention measures including formulation of implementation of Safety Aviation Management Programmes;
    o Carrying out amendments to the Aircraft Act, the Aircraft Rules and the Civil
    o Aviation Requirements for complying with the amendments to ICAO Annexes, and initiating proposals for amendment to any other Act or for passing a new Act in order to give effect to an international Convention or amendment to an existing Convention;
    o Coordination of ICAO matters with all agencies and sending replies to State
    o Letters, and taking all necessary action arising out of the Universal Safety
    o Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) of ICAO;
    o Supervision of the institutes/clubs/schools engaged in flying training including simulator training, AME training or any other training related with aviation, with a view to ensuring a high quality of training;
    o Granting approval to aircraft maintenance, repair and manufacturing organizations and their continued oversight;
    o To act as a nodal agency for implementing Annex 9 provisions in India and for coordinating matters relating to facilitation at Indian airports including holding meetings of the National Facilitation Committee;
    o Rendering advice to the Government on matters relating to air transport including bilateral air services agreements, on ICAO matters and generally on all technical matters relating to civil aviation, and to act as an overall regulatory and developmental body for civil aviation in the country;
    o Coordination at national level for flexi-use of air space by civil and military air traffic agencies and interaction with ICAO for provision of more air routes for civil use through Indian air space;
    o Keeping a check on aircraft noise and engine emissions in accordance with
    o ICAO Annex 16 and collaborating with the environmental authorities in this matter, if required;
    o Promoting indigenous d e s i g n and manufacture of aircraft and aircraft components by acting as a catalytic agent;
    o Approving training programmes of operators for carriage of dangerous goods, issuing authorizations for carriage of dangerous goods, etc.

Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO)

    Organization under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India

Function & Responsibilities

    o Laying down standards of drugs, cosmetics, diagnostics and devices.o Laying down regulatory measures, amendments to Acts and Rules.
    o To regulate market authorization of new drugs.
    o To approve licenses to manufacture certain categories of drugs as Central Licence Approving Authority i.e. for Blood Banks, Large Volume Parenteral and Vaccines & Sera.
    o To regulate the standards of imported drugs.
    o Work relating to the Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB) and Drugs Consultative Committee (DCC).
    o Testing of drugs by Central Drugs Labs.
    o Publication of Indian Pharmacopoeia.
      o To regulate clinical research in India.o Coordinating the activities of the State Drugs Control Organizations to achieve uniform administration of the Act; and policy guidance.  
      o Guidance on technical matters.  
      o Participation in the WHO GMP certification scheme.    
      o Monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADR).    
      o Conducting training programmes for regulatory officials & Govt. Analysts.    
      o Distribution of quotas of narcotic drugs for use in medicinal formulations.    
      o Screening of drug formulations available in Indian market.    
      o Evaluation/Screening of applications for granting No Objection Certificates for export of unapproved/banned drugs.

Directorate General of Mines Safety
Directorate General of Mines Safety, DGMS in short, is the Regulatory Agency under the Ministry of labour and employment, Government of India in matters pertaining to occupational safety, health and welfare of persons employed in mines (Coal, Metal ferrous and oil-mines).
Under the Constitution of India, safety, welfare and health of workers employed in mines are the concern of the Central Government (Entry 55-Union List-Article 246). The objective is regulated by the Mines Act, 1952 and the Rules and Regulations framed there under. These are administered by the directorate general of Mines Safety (DGMS), under the Union Ministry of Labour & Employment. Apart from administering the Mines Act and the subordinate legislation there under, DGMS also administers a few other allied legislation, including the Indian Electricity Act.
The organization has its headquarters at Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and is headed by director general of Mines Safety. At the headquarter, the Director-General is assisted by specialist staff-officers in mining, electrical and mechanical, occupational health, law, survey, statistics, administration and accounts disciplines. The headquarters has also a technical library and S&T laboratories as a back-up support to the organization.
Officers appointed to different technical posts in DGMS are selected by U.P.S.C. They are required to have Degree in Mining or Electrical or Mechanical Engineering and several years of experience, varying from seven to ten years of working in responsible capacity in Mines and allied Industry. Besides officers of mining cadre possess First Class Mine Manager’s Certificate of Competency. The Occupational Health cadre is manned by qualified and experienced medical personnel. Due to the nature of work performed by the officers of DGMS, the Govt. of India declared the organization as “S & T Institution” on the recommendation of Science and Technology Department of Govt. of India, in November 1987.

Director General of Police
In India the director general of police (DGP) or inspector general of police (state) is a three-star rank and the highest ranking police officer in Indian States & Union Territories. All DGPs/IGPs are Indian Police Service (IPS) officers. The DGP/IGP is usually the head of the state police force in every Indian state. There may also be additional officers in the state who hold the rank of DGP/IGP. Common appointments for such officers include director of Vigilance and Anti-Corruption Bureau, director general of prisons, director general of fire forces and civil defense, Criminal Investigation Department(CID),Police Housing Society etc. Additionally officers who hold the rank of DGP/IGP may have commensurate appointments in central government organizations such as director, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), director SVPNPA, DG Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) etc. The rank insignia of a director general of police or commissioner of police (state) is the national emblem over crossed sword and baton

Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals
Function & Responsibilities

    o It is central purchase & quality assurance organisation of Govt. Of India, under Department of Supply, Ministry of Commerce. o In the year 1860, the British govt. Evolved a concept of central buying & set up India stores department in London for meeting procurement needs of govt. Of India.
    o Established in 1951 in its present form for rendering procurement services to central & state govt. By placing rate contracts for common user items & contracts against their ad-hoc demands.
    o Adhoc procurement decentralized in December, 1991. Main function now is to conclude rate contracts.
    o Quality assurance functions continue to remain centralized as before.
    o Continues to be the nodal agency of govt. Of India for purchase policy. & procedure.
    o Govt. Departments/organisations, who have not built-up their own infrastructure for purchase, can raise their demands on DGS&D for ad-hoc procurement.
    o Handling procurement against several World Bank & Asian development bank aided projects for modernisation of polytechnics & vocational training centres, national aids control. National/ state highways, hydrology project
    o Services continue to be available to public sector undertakings & autonomous bodies.
    o Has a full-fledged quality assurance wing rendering wide ranging technical services inclusive of formulation of need based procurement specifications, vendor development/evaluation and assuring quality of goods for their conformity Service charges range from 0.25 to 2 %.
    o Cargo clearance services at major ports are available.
    o Manned by qualified engineers recruited through Indian engineering service examination by UPSC, govt. Of India.
    o State governments, public undertakings, autonomous bodies, quasi-public bodies, etc. Who desire to avail the services of DGS&D can do so. However, indent from these departments should be accompanied by a pre-deposit of funds sufficient to cover the cost of stores. Pre-deposit of funds may be in the form of demand draft or crossed cheque drawn on the reserve bank of India/state bank of India duly marked ‘on government account only’ and in favour of chief controller of accounts, department of supply, new Delhi.
    o Consultancy services of DGS&D are offered to desirous organisations for availing r/c prices, finalising tender documents for their own procurement and providing quality assurance support.
    o Databank on supplier’s rate contracts is maintained to arrange supplies of clothing and tent age items etc. For meeting emergency requirements during disasters/natural calamities.
    o Facility for training in quality & purchase management field are also available in DGS&D
    o Consultancy disaster management

Investigation Agencies
The Government of India is determined to fight all economic crimes.
For this purpose, the Government of India has set up the following Investigation Agencies which function under the Department of Revenue in Union Ministry of Finance:-

    · The Central Economic Intelligence Bureau (Apex body) · Directorate General of Revenue Intelligence (for Customs related offences)
    · Directorate of Enforcement (for Foreign Exchange related offences)
    · Directorate General of Anti-Evasion (for Central Excise related offences)
    · Directorate General of Income Tax(Investigation) (for Income Tax related offences)
    · Narcotics Control Bureau (for Drugs related offences)

The Central Economic Intelligence Bureau (Apex body)

    It is well recognised that the evasion of one tax usually entails evasion of other taxes as well. For the purpose of effective information gathering, collation and dissemination, a close co-ordination between the Agencies enforcing different tax laws is essential.Hence, the Central Economic Intelligence Bureau was set up with the intention of creating a body which would coordinate and strengthen the intelligence gathering activities as well as investigative efforts of all the Agencies which enforce economic laws. Accordingly, the following functions have been entrusted to the Central Economic Intelligence Bureau:-

Function & Responsibilities

    o To collect intelligence and information regarding aspects of the black economy which require close watch and investigation. Also, keeping in view the scene of economic offences, the Bureau is required to collect information and provide periodical and special reports to the concerned authorities; o To keep a watch on different aspects of economic offences and the emergence of new types of such offences. The Bureau was made responsible for evolving counter -measures required for effectively dealing with existing and new types of economic offences;
    o To act as the nodal agency for cooperation and coordination at the international level with other customs, drugs, law enforcement and other agencies in the area of economic offences….
    o To implementation of the COFEPOSA(i.e. Conservation of Foreign Exchange & Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1971 which provides for preventive detention of persons involved in smuggling and foreign exchange rackets under certain specified circumstances)
    o To act as a Secretariat of the Economic Intelligence Council which acts as the apex body to ensure full co-ordination among the various Agencies including Central Bureau of Investigation, Reserve Bank of India, Intelligence Bureau etc.

Directorate General of Revenue IntelligenceFunction & Responsibilities

    o Collection of intelligence about smuggling of contraband goods, narcotics, under-invoicing, over-invoicing etc. through sources of India and abroad, including secret sources;o Analysis and dissemination of such intelligence to the field formations for action;
    o Working out intelligence directly, where necessary;
    o Keeping watch over important seizures and investigation cases;
    o Associating or taking over the investigations which warrant specialised handling by the Directorate;
    o Guiding important investigations/prosecution cases;
    o Functioning as the liaison authority for exchange of information among ESCAP countries for combating international smuggling and customs frauds in terms of the recommendations of the ESCAP conference;
    o Keeping liaison with foreign countries, Indian Missions and enforcement agencies abroad on anti-smuggling matters;
    o Keeping liaison with the CBI and through them with the INTERPOL;
    o Coordinating, directing and controlling anti-smuggling operations on the Indo-Nepal border;
    o Referring cases registered under the Customs Act to the Income Tax Department for action under the Income Tax Act;
    o Keeping statistics of seizures and prices/rates etc. for watching trends of smuggling and supplying required material to the Ministry of Finance and other Ministries; and
    o Studying and suggesting remedies for loopholes in law and procedures to combat smuggling.

Directorate General of Economic Enforcement

    The Directorate of Enforcement, with its Headquarters at New Delhi is headed by the Director of Enforcement. There are five Regional offices at Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, Kolkata and Delhi headed by Special Directors of Enforcement.
    Zone Offices of the Directorate are at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Chennai, Cochin, Delhi, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jalandhar, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Patna and Srinagar. These are headed by a Joint Director.
    The Directorate has Sub-Zone Offices at Bhubaneshwar, Calicut, Indore, Madurai, Nagpur and Varanasi which are headed by a Deputy Director.

Function & Responsibilities

    o Investigate contraventions of the provisions of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999(FEMA) which came into force with effect from 1.6.2000. Contraventions of FEMA are dealt with by way of adjudication by designated authorities of ED and penalties upto three times the sum involved can be imposed.o Investigate offence of money laundering under the provisions of Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002(PMLA) which came into force with effect from 1.7.2005 and to take actions of attachment and confiscation of property if the same is determined to be proceeds of crime derived from a Scheduled Offence under PMLA, and to prosecute the persons involved in the offence of money laundering. There are 156 offences under 28 statutes which are Scheduled Offences under PMLA.
    o Adjudicate Show Cause Notices issued under the repealed Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (FERA) upto 31.5.2002 for the alleged contraventions of the Act which may result in imposition of penalties. Pursue prosecutions launched under FERA in the concerned courts.
    o Sponsor cases of preventive detention under Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974(COFEPOSA) in regard to contraventions of FEMA.
    o Sponsor cases of preventive detention under Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974(COFEPOSA) in regard to contraventions of FEMA.

Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation
Function & Responsibilities

    o The Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation deal with all matters connected with investigations under the Income Tax Act of the Central Government. Some of the more specific functions entrusted to the Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation include :o Head the investigation wing of the Income Tax Department at the Regional Level;
    o Collection of intelligence pertaining to evasion of Direct Taxes;
    o Organise search action to unearth black money- from time to time;
    o Dissemination of information and intelligence collected- by passing on the same to the concerned authorities including assessing authorities;
    o Keep liaison and hold meetings with other organisations in the region to ensure co-ordination and smooth flow of information;
    o Take appropriate steps to ensure that information and other persons having information about tax evaders come forward with the same to the Department. Disbursement of rewards would be one of the measures.

Directorate of Income Tax Intelligence and Criminal Investigation

    The Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation deal with all matters connected with investigations under the Income Tax Act of the Central Government. Some of the more specific functions entrusted to the Directorate Generals of Income Tax Investigation include:

Function & Responsibilities

    o Head the investigation wing of the Income Tax Department at the Regional Level;o Collection of intelligence pertaining to evasion of Direct Taxes;
    o Organise search action to unearth black money- from time to time;
    o Dissemination of information and intelligence collected- by passing on the same to the concerned authorities including assessing authorities;
    o Keep liaison and hold meetings with other organisations in the region to ensure co-ordination and smooth flow of information;
    o Take appropriate steps to ensure that information and other persons having information about tax evaders come forward with the same to the Department. Disbursement of rewards would be one of the measures.

Directorate General of Anti-EvasionFunction & Responsibilities

    o The growth of the Central Excise revenue and extension of its coverage to nearly all manufactured products brought home the need for a specialised intelligence agency to target prevention of Central Excise duty evasion. The Directorate of Anti Evasion was created for this purpose with the following functions:o Collection, collation and dissemination of intelligence relating to evasion of central excise duties on an all India basis;
    o Studying the modus operandi of evasion peculiar to excisable commodities and to alert the Collectorates of their possible use;
    o Studying the price structures, marketing patterns and classification of commodities in respect of which possibilities of evasion are likely with a view to advising the Collectorates for plugging loopholes;
    o Supplementing and co-ordinating the efforts of the field formations in investigation in cases of evasion of duty of Rs.10,000/- and above, wherever necessary;
    o Co-ordinating action with Enforcement agencies like Income-tax, Sales-tax etc. In respect of cases in which central excise evasion has come to notice;
    o Investigation of offences involving evasion of central excise duties having ramification in more than one Collectorates, including investigation of complicated cases selected by the Directorate or entrusted by the Ministry to it;
    o Having at all times, a complete, detailed and up-to-date study of the taxation laws and implementation machinery and to have proper appreciation and assessment of possibilities for evasion;
    o Assisting in an advisory capacity in proper deployment of the Central Excise Preventive Staff in the Central Excise Collectorates for effective anti-evasion measures;
    o Examining and studying the effect and implementation of various tax concessions, exemptions and relaxations in controls; and to make recommendations to the Government from time to time to see whether they are sources of evasion;
    o Maintaining liaison with other Central and State agencies in all matters pertaining to tax evasion”

    Narcotics Control Bureau

      National Policy on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is based on the directive principles contained in Article 47 of the Indian Constitution which directs that the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption, except for medicinal purposes, of intoxicating drugs injurious to health. The government’s policy on the subject which flows from the above said constitutional provision is also guided by the international conventions on the subject. India is a signatory to:
      · Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol. · Conventions on Psychotropic Substances 1971.
      · United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988.

        o The broad legislative policy in the matter is contained in the three Central Acts, viz. Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, and The Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988. The responsibility of drug abuse control, which is a central function, is carried out through a number of Ministries, Departments and Organisations. These include Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue which is having the nodal co-ordination role as administrator of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 and the Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988. o The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 which came into effect from the 14th November, 1985 made an express provision for constituting a Central Authority for the purpose of exercising the powers and functions of the Central Government under the Act.
        o In exercise of the powers, the NARCOTICS CONTROL BUREAU was constituted with Headquarters at Delhi with effect from the 17th March, 1986. The Bureau, subject to the supervision and control of the Central Government, is to exercise the powers and functions of the Central Government for taking measures with respect to:
        o Co-ordination of actions by various offices, State Governments and other authorities under the N.D.P.S. Act, Customs Act, Drugs and Cosmetics Act and any other law for the time being in force in connection with the enforcement provisions of the NDPS Act, 1985.
        o Implementation of the obligation in respect of counter measures against illicit traffic under the various international conventions and protocols that are in force at present or which may be ratified or acceded to by India in future.
        o Assistance to concerned authorities in foreign countries and concerned international organisations to facilitate coordination and universal action for prevention and suppression of illicit traffic in these drugs and substances.
        o Coordination of actions taken by the other concerned Ministries, Departments and Organisations in respect of matters relating to drug abuse.
        o The Narcotics control Bureau is the apex coordinating agency. It also functions as an enforcement agency through its field units located at Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, and madras, Varanasi, Jodhpur, Chandigarh, Jammu, Ahmedabad, Impala and Thiruvananthapuram. The Zone Units collect and analyses data related to seizures of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substance, study of trends, modus operandi, collection and dissemination of intelligence and work in close cooperation with the Customs, State Police and other law enforcement agencies. The assistance provided by the Bureau has been acknowledged by other Governments and many international bodies.

    Attorney General of India
    The Attorney General for India is appointed by the President and holds office during the pleasure of the President. He must be a person qualified to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court. It is the duty of the Attorney-General in India to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may be referred or assigned to him by the President and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under the constitution or any other law. In the performance of his duties, he has the right of audience in all courts in India as well as the right to vote. In the discharge of his functions, the Attorney General is assisted by the Solicitor-General and the Additional Solicitors-General.
    The attorney general of India is the Indian government’s chief legal adviser, and its primary lawyer in dealing with the Supreme Court of India. The attorney general for India is appointed by the President under Article 76(1) of the Constitution. The solicitor general of India is appointed to assist the attorney general along with four additional solicitors general.

    Solicitor General of India
    The Solicitor General for India is subordinate to the Attorney General of India, who is the Indian government’s chief legal advisor, and its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court of India. The Solicitor General for India is the second law officer of the country, assists the Attorney General, and is himself assisted by several Additional Solicitors General of India Like the Attorney General of India, the Solicitor General and the Additional Solicitors General advice the Government and appear on behalf of the Union of India in terms of the Law Officers (Terms and Conditions) Rules, 1972[. However, unlike the post of Attorney General of India, which is a Constitutional post under Article 76 of the Constitution of India, the posts of the Solicitor General and the Additional Solicitors General are merely statutory.

    Controller General of Accounts
    Under Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, Govt of India

      Controller General of Accounts is the principal Accounts Adviser to the Government of India and is responsible for establishing and maintaining a technically sound management accounting system. He prepares a critical analysis of expenditures, revenues, borrowings and the deficit for the Finance Minister every month.He also prepares annual Appropriation Accounts and Union Finance Accounts for presentation to the parliament.

    Comptroller and Auditor General of India

      The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution of India under Chapter V, who audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. The CAG is also the external auditor of government-owned companies. The reports of the CAG are taken into consideration by the Public Accounts Committees, which are special committees in the Parliament of India and the state legislatures. The CAG of India is also the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department, which has over 58,000 employees across the country.The Comptroller & Auditor General of India plays a key role in the functioning of the financial committees of Parliament and the State Legislatures. He has come to be recognised as a ‘friend, philosopher and guide’ of the Committee. His Reports generally form the basis of the Committees’ working, although they are not precluded from examining issues not brought out in his Reports. He scrutinises the notes which the Ministries submit to the Committees and helps the Committees to check the correctness submit to the Committees and helps the Committees to check the correctness of facts and figures in their draft reports.
      The Financial Committees present their Report to the Parliament/ State Legislature with their observations and recommendations. The various Ministries / Department of the Government are required to inform the Committees of the action taken by them on the recommendations of the Committees (which are generally accepted) and the Committees present Action Taken Reports to Parliament / Legislature.
      In respect of those cases in Audit Reports, which could not be discussed in detail by the Committees, written answers are obtained from the Department / Ministry concerned and are sometimes incorporated in the Reports presented to the Parliament / State Legislature. This ensures that the audit Reports are not taken lightly by the Government, even if the entire report is not deliberated upon by the Committee.
      Audit Jurisdiction

        o The organisations subject to the audit of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India are:-o All the Union and State Government departments and offices including the Indian Railways and Posts and Telecommunications.
        o About 1200 public commercial enterprises controlled by the Union and State governments, i.e. government companies and corporations.
        o Around 400 non-commercial autonomous bodies and authorities owned or controlled by the Union or the States.
        o Over 4400 authorities and bodies substantially financed from Union or State revenues

      Audit of Government Companies (Commercial Audit)

         There is a special arrangement for the audit of companies where the equity participation by Government is 51 per cent or more. The auditors of government companies are appointed or re-appointed by C&AG in terms of provisions of section 619(2) of the Companies Act., 1956 in view of Companies Amendment Act, 2000, who gives the auditors directions on the manner in which the audit should be conducted by them. He is also empowered to comment upon the audit reports of the primary auditors. In addition, he conducts a supplementary audit of such companies and reports the results of his audit to Parliament and State Legislatures.

      Audit Board Setup in Commercial Audit

        A unique feature of the audit conducted by the Indian Audit and Accounts Department is the constitution of Audit Boards for conducting comprehensive audit appraisals of the working of Public Sector Enterprises engaged in diverse sectors of the economy. These Audit Boards associate with them experts in disciplines relevant to the appraisals. They discuss their findings and conclusions with the managements of the enterprises and their controlling ministries and departments of government to ascertain their view points before finalisation.
        The results of such comprehensive appraisals are incorporated by the Comptroller and Auditor General in his reports

      Nature of Audit

        While fulfilling his Constitutional obligations, the Comptroller & Auditor General examines various aspects of Government expenditure. The audit done by C&A G is broadly classified into Regularity Audit and Performance Audit.

      Regularity Audit (Compliance)

        Audit against provision of funds to ascertain whether the moneys shown as expenditure in the Accounts were authorised for the purpose for which they were spent. Audit against rules and regulation to see that the expenditure incurred was in conformity with the laws, rules and regulations framed to regulate the procedure for expending public money.
        Audit of sanctions to expenditure to see that every item of expenditure was done with the approval of the competent authority in the Government for expending the public money.
        Propriety Audit which extends beyond scrutinising the mere formality of expenditure to it wisdom and economy and to bring to light cases of improper expenditure or waste of public money.
        While conducting the audit of receipts of the Central and State Governments, the Comptroller & Auditor General satisfies himself that the rules and procedures ensure that assessment, collection and allocation of revenue are done in accordance with the law and there is no leakage of revenue which legally should come to Government.

      Performance Audit

        Performance audit to see that Government programmes have achieved the desired objectives at lowest cost and given the intended benefits. For a complete list of Performance Appraisals since 1983

      Regularity Audit (Financial)

        In regularity (financial) audit and in other types of audit when applicable, auditors should analyse the financial statements to establish whether acceptable accounting    standards for financial reporting and disclosure are complied with. Analysis of financial statements should be performed to such a degree that a rational basis is obtained to express an opinion on financial statements.

      Action on Audit Reports

         The scrutiny of the Annual Accounts and the Audit Reports thereon by the Parliament as a whole would be an arduous task, considering their diverse and specialised nature, besides imposing excessive demands on the limited time available to the Parliament for discussion of issues of national importance. Therefore the Parliament and the State Legislatures have, for this purpose, constituted specialized Committees like the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) and the Committee on Public Undertakings (COPU), to which these audit Reports and Annual Accounts automatically stand referred.

      Public Accounts Committee

        The Public Accounts Committee satisfies itself:-

          a. That the moneys (shown in the accounts) were disbursed legally on the service or     purpose to which they were applied.b. That the expenditure was authorised.
          c. That re-appropriation (i.e. distribution of funds.

        It is also the duty of the PAC to examine the statement of accounts of autonomous and semi-autonomous bodies, the audit of which is conducted by the Comptroller & Auditor General either under the directions of the President or by a Statute of Parliament.

      Committee on Public Undertakings

        The Committee on Public Undertakings exercises the same financial control on the public sector undertakings as the Public Accounts Committee exercises over the functioning of the Government Departments. The functions of the Committee are:- A.to examines the reports and accounts of public undertakings.
         B.to examines the reports of the Comptroller & Auditor General on public undertakings.
         C.to examines the efficiency of public undertakings and to see whether they are being     managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices.
        The examination of public enterprises by the Committee takes the form of comprehensive appraisal or evaluation of performance of the undertaking. It involves a thorough examination, including evaluation of the policies, programmes and financial working of the undertaking.
        The objective of the Financial Committees, in doing so, is not to focus only on the individual irregularity, but on the defects in the system which led to such irregularity, and the need for correction of such systems and procedures.

       Local Bodies AuditWith the introduction of the third tier of government in the pursuance of the 73rd Amendment of the

        UNION AUDIT REPORTSThe Union Audit Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, contain the findings of transaction audit and performance audit in the areas of:

          Civil AuditAudit of Autonomous Bodies
          Defence Services
          Railways
          Receipts of the Government
          Central Commercial

      The Audit of the CAG is bifurcated into two streams namely Performance Audit and Regularity (Compliance) Audit.  While audit of the Civil Departments, Railways and Defence are conducted as per the direct mandate in the constitution and relevant provisions of the DPC Act, the Commercial Audit is conducted under the provisions of Company Act. Autonomous Bodies are audited as per the mandate in the act establishing the body.
        The reports of the CAG are deliberated upon by the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) of the parliament, save the commercial reports which are examined by the Committee on Public Undertakings (COPU).

    Knowledge

    Indian Military Vehicles Numbering System

    Indian Military vehicles have a unique numbering system unlike any other as you have already noticed. The numbers are registered by the Ministry of Defence in New Delhi and have a numbering system which appears very vague. The first (or the third) character is always an arrow pointing upwards. The first two digits signify the year in which the Military procured the vehicle.

    ## The up arrow denotes Military Property so not only the cars and trucks even a chair carries the up arrow.
    ## The no. after the arrow indicates the year when the vehicle was commissioned into army.
    ## Then the class of the vehicle which is also stencilled on the windshield,
    Eg: A class “A” vehicle is brand new and a class “F” vehicle would be earmarked for phasing out or condemnation/sale.

    Knowledge, Travel

    Indian Railway: Rajdhani

    Rajdhani Express Trains: the fast moving trains connects New Delhi to the other major cities of the India. This class of passenger trains was introduced in 1969 and moves with a speed of about 140 km/hr, though the speed varies at few places. Rajdhani Express when ran for the first time, it covered the distance of 1,445 kilometers between national capital New Delhi to Howrah. The train took about 17 hours 20 minutes to cover this long distance. Rajhdhani Express trains offers the most comfortable and pleasurable journeys to the passengers. An advance booking of the tickets is highly recommended and tickets can be booked easily online.
    Rajhdhani Express trains are centrally air-conditioned and enjoy highest priority on Indian Railways network. Passengers travelling by Rajhdhani Express get several facilities. Complimentary meals are offered during the trip. Passengers are offered facilities as per the time taken by the train to reach the particular destination. Newspapers are also provided to the travellers.
    Rajhdhani Express trains comprises of mainly three kinds of accommodations which are First Class AC, AC two-tier and AC three-tier. In present times, there are total of 18 Rajhdhani Express trains running all across the country. Today, Rajhdhani Express trains run at an average speed of about 80 kilometers per hour. The trains possess the capacity to beat airlines too. The comfort and luxury attached with this class of trains has been successful in casting a spell on travellers. Travelling with Rajdhani Express is must-do for every traveller.

    Currently there are 24 pairs of Rajdhani Express trains, connecting New Delhi to Ahmedabad, Bangalore (2), Bhubaneswar(2), Bilaspur, Chennai, Guwahati/Dibrugarh(3),Hyderabad, Ranchi(2), Kolkata (3), Jammu, Mumbai (2), Patna and Thiruvananthapuram. These trains have fewer stops than other express trains. They halt only in state capitals and prominent cities like Vadodara, Bhopal, Ratlam, Nagda, Kota, Jaipur, Allahabad, Jhansi, Lucknow, Kanpur,Gaya, Balasore, Cuttack, Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Asansol, Bokaro, Nagpur, Panvel, Kazipet, Surat and Raipur.

    Besides Delhi three State Capitals Mumbai, Guwahati and Calcutta are served by more than one Rajdhani Express. For instance 9 pairs of Rajdhani Trains halt at Kanpur Central, as well as 5 pairs of Rajdhani Express trains halt each at Jhansi Junction, Bhopal Junction and Nagpur Junction.

    Below is the list of all Rajdhani Express Trains :

    02423 Dibrugarh Guwahati Rajdhani Exp.
    02424 Guwahati Dibrugarh Rajdhani Exp.
    02435 Dibrugarh Guwahati Rajdhani Exp.
    02436 Guwahati Dibrugarh Rajdhani Exp.
    12235 Guwahati New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12236 New Delhi Guwahati Rajdhani Exp.
    12301 Howrah New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12302 New Delhi Howrah Rajdhani Exp.
    12305 Howrah New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12306 New Delhi Howrah Rajdhani Exp.
    12309 Rajinder Nagar Bihar New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12310 New Delhi Rajinder Nagar Bihar Rajdhani Exp.
    12313 SealdahNew Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12314 New Delhi Sealdah Rajdhani Exp.
    12421 Bhubaneswar New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12422 New Delhi Bhubaneswar Rajdhani Exp.
    12423 Dibrugarh New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12424 New Delhi Dibrugarh Rajdhani Exp.
    12425 New Delhi Jammu Tawi Rajdhani Exp.
    12426 Jammu Tawi New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12429 Bangalore H Nizamuddin Rajdhani Exp.
    12430 H Nizamuddin Bangalore Rajdhani Exp.
    12431 Trivandrum H Nizamuddin Rajdhani Exp.
    12432 H Nizamuddin Trivandrum Rajdhani Exp.
    12433 Chennai H Nizamuddin Rajdhani Exp.
    12434 H Nizamuddin Chennai Rajdhani Exp.
    12435 Dibrugarh New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12436 New Delhi Dibrugarh Rajdhani Exp.
    12437 Secunderabad H Nizamuddin Rajdhani Exp.
    12438 H Nizamuddin Secunderabad Rajdhani Exp.
    12439 Ranchi New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12440 New Delhi Ranchi Rajdhani Exp.
    12441 Bilaspur JN New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12442 New Delhi Bilaspur Rajdhani Exp.
    12443 Bhubaneswar New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12444 New Delhi Bhubaneswar Rajdhani Exp.
    12453 Ranchi New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12454 New Delhi Ranchi Rajdhani Exp.
    12493 Bangalore H Nizamuddin Rajdhani Exp.
    12494 H Nizamuddin Bangalore Rajdhani Exp.
    12951 Mumbai Central New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12952 New Delhi Mumbai Central Rajdhani Exp.
    12953 Mumbai Central H Nizamuddin Rajdhani Exp.
    12954 H Nizamuddin Mumbai Central Rajdhani Exp.
    12957 Ahmedabad New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    12958 New Delhi Ahmedabad Rajdhani Exp.
    22423 Guwahati New Delhi Rajdhani Exp.
    22424 New Delhi Guwahati Rajdhani Exp.